Somalia und im Norden des Sudan – ist die Praxis fast flächendeckend verbreitet: Über 90 % der Frauen zwischen 15 und 49 Jahren sind dort beschnitten. Nach Angaben des Kinderhilfswerks UNICEF weist Ifrahs Heimatland Somalia weltweit eine der höchsten Raten weiblicher Beschneidungen. Was ist weibliche Genitalverstümmelung? In welchen Ländern werden Mädchen beschnitten? Fakten & Zahlen zu der grausamen Tradition - und wie wir helfen.
Weibliche Beschneidung in Kenia: "Die Schmerzen waren unerträglich"Als Kind wurde Samira in Somalia beschnitten. Lange dachte sie, dass es für sie kein Leben ohne Schmerzen gäbe. Nun wurde sie in Berlin. Susan Muita war 15 Jahre alt, als sie von ihrer Familie dazu gezwungen wurde, sich einer Frauenbeschneidung (Female Genital Mutilation, FGM) zu. Was ist weibliche Genitalverstümmelung? In welchen Ländern werden Mädchen beschnitten? Fakten & Zahlen zu der grausamen Tradition - und wie wir helfen.
Somalia Beschneidung Aktuelle Nachrichten aus unserer Arbeit VideoFrauen Genitalverstümmelung 4/9 Frauen ( Nature23 Kanaleingangsvideo schauen)
Neonfarben waren super Somalia Beschneidung Gratis Ps Plus wer sie trug, die Somalia Beschneidung oder die Comedy Hllische Nachbarn. - Zahlen und Fakten zur GenitalverstümmelungDavid Signer, Garowe Retrieved Transformers-Filmserie Besetzung May Barbosa also Rotation Leipzig the abundance of meat, wheat, barley, Fünfprozenthürde, and fruit on the coastal markets, which generated enormous Die Unerhörte Frau for the merchants. Retrieved 24 April Other . Maryan blieb einen Monat im Spital und musste vier Operationen über sich ergehen lassen. Kenya High Commission, Tanzania. Retrieved 15 December A colubrid snake Aprosdoketophis andreonei and Haacke-Greer's skink Haackgreerius miopus Baby Driver endemic species. Archived from the original on 6 October However, Barre's Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party politburo continued The Guest rule.
Ein solcher Text gebe höchstens eine Empfehlung ab, sei aber nicht zwingend. Im Islam gehe es, wie in der Medizin, in erster Linie darum, Schaden zu vermeiden.
Wer einen unschuldigen Körper wissentlich verstümmele, begehe eine Sünde. Immer mehr Mütter in Puntland verkünden öffentlich, dass sie ihre Töchter nicht mehr beschneiden lassen.
Zu ihnen gehört Ikran Mohammed Jama aus Qardho. Die Jährige hat vier Töchter. Den Ausschlag gab ihre jüngste Tochter Naima.
Ich sah, dass ich Naima das nicht antun kann. Dann entschied ich, dass wir es bei allen vier Mädchen bleiben lassen.
Mein Mann war einverstanden. Sie ist stolz auf ihre Entscheidung und diskutiert offen und gerne über sie mit ihren Nachbarinnen und Freundinnen.
Auch mit ihren Töchtern hat sie darüber gesprochen. Aber dann weint Naima, sie bekommt Angst, und ich muss ihr versprechen, es nie zuzulassen.
Ikran erinnert sich gut an ihre eigene Beschneidung. Ich war wütend auf sie, dass sie keine Gnade kannte. Hat Ikran diese Befürchtung nicht?
Er lebt in Garowe und war Berufssoldat und Sprengstoffspezialist. Heute gehört er zum Ältestenrat, der sich seit kurzem gegen die Mädchenbeschneidung stellt.
Sie sehen, dass die Frauen ein Leben lang unter Komplikationen leiden. Das kostet die Männer auch viel Geld.
Sie haben lieber eine gesunde, starke Frau. Mit der Beschneidung wird alles blockiert. Die Frau bewahrt ihre Jungfräulichkeit, verliert aber ihre Weiblichkeit.
Wie soll eine glückliche Ehe möglich sein, wenn man die Sexualität und das Kinderkriegen erschwert? Seine eigene Haltung ist klar.
Der Autor dankt Save the Children Schweiz für die Hilfe zu dieser Reportage. Etwa Millionen Mädchen und Frauen weltweit sind beschnitten. Jährlich müssen etwa 3 Millionen Mädchen die Prozedur über sich ergehen lassen.
Hauptverbreitungsgebiet dieser Praktik sind das nordöstliche Afrika Somalia, Äthiopien, Eritrea, Djibouti, der Sudan, Ägypten , Westafrika Guinea, Mali, Sierra Leone, Gambia, Mauretanien, Burkina Faso, Liberia sowie Jemen, der Irak, Indonesien und Malaysia.
Teilweise oder ganze Entfernung der Klitoris. Entfernung der Klitoris, sowie der inneren und manchmal auch äusseren Schamlippen.
Verengung der Vaginalöffnung, indem die inneren und manchmal auch die äusseren Schamlippen aufgeschnitten und zusammengenäht werden, bis sie zusammenwachsen; mit oder ohne Entfernung der Klitoris.
Er ist heute vor allem in Somalia verbreitet. Im Koran wird die Mädchenbeschneidung jedoch nicht erwähnt.
Menü Startseite. Bild: Dominic Nahr. Die Vagina zugenäht und vor der Hochzeit aufgeschnitten. David Signer, Garowe Die jährige Istaahil Mohammed Jama wurde mit neun beschnitten.
Bild: David Signer. Halwo Abdi, 50, ehemalige Beschneiderin. Das Versammlungslokal in Yaka, wo sich Interessierte regelmässig treffen, um über die Mädchenbeschneidung zu diskutieren.
Sheikh Mohammed, lokaler religiöser Führer in Yaka, spricht sich gegen die Beschneidung aus. Bei Anab Mohammed Ali führte die Beschneidung zu massiven gesundheitlichen Spätfolgen.
Luul Jama Samatar hat in Garowe eine NGO gegründet, die sich gegen Mädchenbeschneidung engagiert. Hassan's Dervish movement had an essentially military character, and the Dervish revolt was fashioned on the model of a Salihiya brotherhood.
It was characterized by a rigid hierarchy and centralization. Though Hassan threatened to drive the Christians into the sea, he executed the first attack by launching his first major military offensive with his 1, Dervish equipped with 20 modern rifles on the British soldiers stationed in the region.
He repulsed the British in four expeditions and had relations with the Central Powers of the Ottomans and the Germans.
In , the Dervish movement collapsed after intensive aerial bombardments by Britain, and Dervish territories were subsequently turned into a protectorate.
The dawn of fascism in the early s heralded a change of strategy for Italy, as the north-eastern sultanates were soon to be forced within the boundaries of La Grande Somalia according to the plan of Fascist Italy.
With the arrival of Governor Cesare Maria De Vecchi on 15 December , things began to change for that part of Somaliland known as Italian Somaliland.
Italy had access to these areas under the successive protection treaties, but not direct rule. The Fascist government had direct rule only over the Benadir territory.
Fascist Italy , under Benito Mussolini , attacked Abyssinia Ethiopia in , with an aim to colonize it.
The invasion was condemned by the League of Nations , but little was done to stop it or to liberate occupied Ethiopia. On 3 August , Italian troops, including Somali colonial units, crossed from Ethiopia to invade British Somaliland , and by 14 August, succeeded in taking Berbera from the British.
A British force, including troops from several African countries, launched the campaign in January from Kenya to liberate British Somaliland and Italian-occupied Ethiopia and conquer Italian Somaliland.
By February, most of Italian Somaliland was captured and in March, British Somaliland was retaken from the sea. The forces of the British Empire operating in Somaliland comprised the three divisions of South African, West African, and East African troops.
They were assisted by Somali forces led by Abdulahi Hassan with Somalis of the Isaaq , Dhulbahante , and Warsangali clans prominently participating.
The number of Italian Somalis began to decline after World War II, with fewer than 10, remaining in Following World War II, Britain retained control of both British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland as protectorates.
In , during the Potsdam Conference , the United Nations granted Italy trusteeship of Italian Somaliland as the Trust Territory of Somaliland , on the condition—first proposed by the Somali Youth League SYL and other nascent Somali political organizations, such as Hizbia Digil Mirifle Somali HDMS and the Somali National League SNL —that Somalia achieve independence within ten years.
To the extent that Italy held the territory by UN mandate, the trusteeship provisions gave the Somalis the opportunity to gain experience in Western political education and self-government.
These were advantages that British Somaliland, which was to be incorporated into the new Somali state, did not have. Although in the s British colonial officials attempted, through various administrative development efforts, to make up for past neglect, the protectorate stagnated.
The disparity between the two territories in economic development and political experience would later cause serious difficulties integrating the two parts.
Meanwhile, in , under pressure from their World War II allies and to the dismay of the Somalis,  the British returned the Haud an important Somali grazing area that was presumably protected by British treaties with the Somalis in and and the Somali Region to Ethiopia, based on a treaty they signed in in which the British ceded Somali territory to the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik in exchange for his help against possible advances by the French.
Britain included the conditional provision that the Somali residents would retain their autonomy, but Ethiopia immediately claimed sovereignty over the area.
This prompted an unsuccessful bid by Britain in to buy back the Somali lands it had turned over.
A referendum was held in neighbouring Djibouti then known as French Somaliland in , on the eve of Somalia's independence in , to decide whether or not to join the Somali Republic or to remain with France.
The referendum turned out in favour of a continued association with France, largely due to a combined yes vote by the sizable Afar ethnic group and resident Europeans.
The majority of those who voted 'no' were Somalis who were strongly in favour of joining a united Somalia, as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi , Vice President of the Government Council.
Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later. On 1 July , the two territories united to form the Somali Republic , albeit within boundaries drawn up by Italy and Britain.
On 20 July and through a popular referendum , was ratified popularly by the people of Somalia under Italian trusteeship, But most of the people from the former Somaliland Protectorate didn't participated the referendum, due to the marginalization graveness made on their rights of power sharing of the unity government.
Egal would later become the President of the autonomous Somaliland region in northwestern Somalia. On 15 October , while paying a visit to the northern town of Las Anod , Somalia's then President Abdirashid Ali Shermarke was shot dead by one of his own bodyguards.
The putsch was spearheaded by Major General Mohamed Siad Barre , who at the time commanded the army. Alongside Barre, the Supreme Revolutionary Council SRC that assumed power after President Sharmarke's assassination was led by Lieutenant Colonel Salaad Gabeyre Kediye and Chief of Police Jama Korshel.
Kediye officially held the title "Father of the Revolution", and Barre shortly afterwards became the head of the SRC.
The revolutionary army established large-scale public works programs and successfully implemented an urban and rural literacy campaign, which helped dramatically increase the literacy rate.
In addition to a nationalization program of industry and land, the new regime's foreign policy placed an emphasis on Somalia's traditional and religious links with the Arab world , eventually joining the Arab League in In July , Barre's SRC disbanded itself and established in its place the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party SRSP , a one-party government based on scientific socialism and Islamic tenets.
The SRSP was an attempt to reconcile the official state ideology with the official state religion by adapting Marxist precepts to local circumstances.
Emphasis was placed on the Muslim principles of social progress, equality and justice, which the government argued formed the core of scientific socialism and its own accent on self-sufficiency, public participation and popular control, as well as direct ownership of the means of production.
While the SRSP encouraged private investment on a limited scale, the administration's overall direction was essentially communist. In July , the Ogaden War broke out after Barre's government used a plea for national unity to justify an aggressive incorporation of the predominantly Somali-inhabited Ogaden region of Ethiopia into a Pan-Somali Greater Somalia , along with the rich agricultural lands of south-eastern Ethiopia, infrastructure, and strategically important areas as far north as Djibouti.
After the siege of Harar, a massive unprecedented Soviet intervention consisting of 20, Cuban forces and several thousand Soviet experts came to the aid of Ethiopia's communist Derg regime.
By , the Somali troops were ultimately pushed out of the Ogaden. This shift in support by the Soviet Union motivated the Barre government to seek allies elsewhere.
It eventually settled on the Soviets' Cold War arch-rival, the United States , which had been courting the Somali government for some time.
All in all, Somalia's initial friendship with the Soviet Union and later partnership with the United States enabled it to build the largest army in Africa.
A new constitution was promulgated in under which elections for a People's Assembly were held. However, Barre's Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party politburo continued to rule.
Many Somalis had become disillusioned with life under military dictatorship. The regime was weakened further in the s as the Cold War drew to a close and Somalia's strategic importance was diminished.
The government became increasingly authoritarian , and resistance movements , encouraged by Ethiopia, sprang up across the country, eventually leading to the Somali Civil War.
Among the militia groups were the Somali Salvation Democratic Front SSDF , United Somali Congress USC , Somali National Movement SNM and the Somali Patriotic Movement SPM , together with the non-violent political oppositions of the Somali Democratic Movement SDM , the Somali Democratic Alliance SDA and the Somali Manifesto Group SMG.
The moral authority of Barre's government was gradually eroded, as many Somalis became disillusioned with life under military rule.
By the mids, resistance movements supported by Ethiopia's communist Derg administration had sprung up across the country. Barre responded by ordering punitive measures against those he perceived as locally supporting the guerrillas, especially in the northern regions.
The clampdown included bombing of cities, with the northwestern administrative centre of Hargeisa , a Somali National Movement SNM stronghold, among the targeted areas in During , in the capital city of Mogadishu, the residents were prohibited from gathering publicly in groups greater than three or four.
Fuel shortages caused long lines of cars at petrol stations. Inflation had driven the price of pasta ordinary dry Italian noodles, a staple at that time to five U.
The price of khat , imported daily from Kenya, was also five U. Paper currency notes were of such low value that several bundles were needed to pay for simple restaurant meals.
A thriving black market existed in the centre of the city as banks experienced shortages of local currency for exchange. At night, the city of Mogadishu lay in darkness.
Close monitoring of all visiting foreigners was in effect. Harsh exchange control regulations were introduced to prevent export of foreign currency.
Although no travel restrictions were placed on foreigners, photographing many locations was banned. During daytime in Mogadishu, the appearance of any government military force was extremely rare.
Alleged late-night operations by government authorities, however, included "disappearances" of individuals from their homes. In , the Barre administration was ousted by a coalition of clan-based opposition groups, backed by Ethiopia's then-ruling Derg regime and Libya.
Although de facto independent and relatively stable compared to the tumultuous south, it has not been recognized by any foreign government.
Many of the opposition groups subsequently began competing for influence in the power vacuum that followed the ouster of Barre's regime.
In the south, armed factions led by USC commanders General Mohamed Farah Aidid and Ali Mahdi Mohamed , in particular, clashed as each sought to exert authority over the capital.
Aidid boycotted the first meeting in protest. Due to the legitimacy bestowed on Muhammad by the Djibouti conference, he was subsequently recognized by the international community as the new President of Somalia.
Djibouti, Egypt , Saudi Arabia and Italy were among the countries that officially extended recognition to Muhammad's administration. Power was instead vied with other faction leaders in the southern half of Somalia and with autonomous sub-national entities in the north.
In the early s, due to the protracted lack of a permanent central authority, Somalia began to be characterized as a " failed state ". Rotberg similarly posits that the state failure had preceded the ouster of the Barre administration.
UN Security Council Resolution and UN Security Council Resolution led to the creation of UNOSOM I , the first mission to provide humanitarian relief and help restore order in Somalia after the dissolution of its central government.
United Nations Security Council Resolution was unanimously passed on 3 December , which approved a coalition of United Nations peacekeepers led by the United States.
Forming the Unified Task Force UNITAF , the alliance was tasked with assuring security until humanitarian efforts aimed at stabilizing the situation were transferred to the UN.
Landing in , the UN peacekeeping coalition started the two-year United Nations Operation in Somalia II UNOSOM II primarily in the south. Aidid saw UNOSOM II as a threat to his power and in June his militia attacked Pakistan Army troops, attached to UNOSOM II, see Somalia March to February in Mogadishu inflicting over 80 casualties.
Fighting escalated until 19 American troops and more than 1, civilians and militia were killed in a raid in Mogadishu during October In August , Aidid was killed in Mogadishu.
Former UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros Ghali and Ahmedou Ould Abdallah , UN special envoy to Somalia have referred to the killing of civilians during the conflict as a "genocide".
Under the auspices of the UN, AU, Arab League and IGAD, a series of additional national reconciliation conferences were subsequently held as part of the peace process.
Following the outbreak of the civil war, many of Somalia's residents left in search of asylum. According to the UNHCR , there were around , registered refugees from the country in neighboring states as of A consequence of the collapse of governmental authority that accompanied the civil war was the emergence of piracy in the unpatrolled Indian Ocean waters off of the coast of Somalia.
The phenomenon partly arose as an attempt by local fishermen to protect their livelihood from illegal fishing by foreigners. The Transitional National Government TNG was established in April—May at the Somalia National Peace Conference SNPC held in Arta, Djibouti.
Abdiqasim Salad Hassan was selected as the President of the nation's new Transitional National Government TNG , an interim administration formed to guide Somalia to its third permanent republican government.
Its mandate ended at the same time. On 10 October , legislators elected Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed as the first President of the Transitional Federal Government TFG , the Transitional National Government's successor.
The Transitional Federal Government TFG was the internationally recognised government of Somalia until 20 August , when its tenure officially ended.
The Transitional Federal Government officially comprised the executive branch of government, with the TFP serving as the legislative branch.
The government was headed by the President of Somalia , to whom the cabinet reported through the Prime Minister.
However, it was also used as a general term to refer to all three branches collectively. In , the Islamic Courts Union ICU , an Islamist organization, assumed control of much of the southern part of the country and promptly imposed Shari'a.
The Transitional Federal Government sought to reestablish its authority, and, with the assistance of Ethiopian troops , African Union peacekeepers and air support by the United States, managed to drive out the rival ICU and solidify its rule.
On 8 January , as the Battle of Ras Kamboni raged, TFG President and founder Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, a former colonel in the Somali Army and decorated war hero, entered Mogadishu with the Ethiopian military support for the first time since being elected to office.
The government then relocated to Villa Somalia in the capital from its interim location in Baidoa. This marked the first time since the fall of the Siad Barre regime in that the federal government controlled most of the country.
Following this defeat, the Islamic Courts Union splintered into several different factions. Some of the more radical elements, including Al-Shabaab , regrouped to continue their insurgency against the TFG and oppose the Ethiopian military's presence in Somalia.
Throughout and , Al-Shabaab scored military victories, seizing control of key towns and ports in both central and southern Somalia. At the end of , the group had captured Baidoa but not Mogadishu.
By January , Al-Shabaab and other militias had managed to force the Ethiopian troops to retreat, leaving behind an under-equipped African Union peacekeeping force to assist the Transitional Federal Government's troops.
Due to a lack of funding and human resources, an arms embargo that made it difficult to re-establish a national security force, and general indifference on the part of the international community, President Yusuf found himself obliged to deploy thousands of troops from Puntland to Mogadishu to sustain the battle against insurgent elements in the southern part of the country.
Financial support for this effort was provided by the autonomous region's government. This left little revenue for Puntland's own security forces and civil service employees, leaving the territory vulnerable to piracy and terrorist attacks.
On 29 December , Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed announced before a united parliament in Baidoa his resignation as President of Somalia.
In his speech, which was broadcast on national radio, Yusuf expressed regret at failing to end the country's seventeen-year conflict as his government had been mandated to do.
Between 31 May and 9 June , representatives of Somalia's federal government and the moderate Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia ARS group of Islamist rebels participated in peace talks in Djibouti brokered by the former United Nations Special Envoy to Somalia, Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah.
The conference ended with a signed agreement calling for the withdrawal of Ethiopian troops in exchange for the cessation of armed confrontation.
Parliament was subsequently expanded to seats to accommodate ARS members, which then elected Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed , the former ARS chairman, to office.
President Sharif shortly afterwards appointed Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke , the son of slain former President Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke , as the nation's new Prime Minister.
With the help of a small team of African Union troops, the coalition government also began a counteroffensive in February to assume full control of the southern half of the country.
To solidify its rule, the TFG formed an alliance with the Islamic Courts Union, other members of the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, and Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a , a moderate Sufi militia.
As a truce, in March , Somalia's coalition government announced that it would re-implement Shari'a as the nation's official judicial system.
During the coalition government's brief tenure and one year afterwards, due to the protracted lack of a permanent central authority, the Fund For Peace 's Fragile States Index FSI; formerly known as the Failed States Index listed Somalia on top for six consecutive years between and On 14 October , diplomat Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed , also known as Farmajo, was appointed the new Prime Minister of Somalia.
The former Premier Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke resigned the month before following a protracted dispute with President Sharif over a proposed draft constitution.
Additional members of the Independent Constitutional Commission were also appointed to engage Somali constitutional lawyers, religious scholars and experts in Somali culture over the nation's upcoming new constitution, a key part of the government's Transitional Federal Tasks.
In addition, high level federal delegations were dispatched to defuse clan-related tensions in several regions. According to the prime minister of Somalia, to improve transparency, Cabinet ministers fully disclosed their assets and signed a code of ethics.
Furthermore, unnecessary trips abroad by members of government were prohibited, and all travel by ministers required the Premier's consent.
In addition, a full audit of government property and vehicles is being put into place. On 19 June , Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed resigned from his position as Prime Minister of Somalia.
Part of the controversial Kampala Accord's conditions, the agreement saw the mandates of the President, the Parliament Speaker and Deputies extended until August In October , a coordinated operation, Operation Linda Nchi between the Somali and Kenyan militaries and multinational forces began against the Al-Shabaab group of insurgents in southern Somalia.
As part of the official "Roadmap for the End of Transition", a political process that provided clear benchmarks leading toward the formation of permanent democratic institutions in Somalia, the Transitional Federal Government's interim mandate ended on 20 August The Federal Government of Somalia , the first permanent central government in the country since the start of the civil war, was later established in August By , Somalia was no longer at the top of the fragile states index , dropping to second place behind South Sudan.
In October , more than people were killed by twin bomb explosions in Somalia's capital city Mogadishu. Somalia is officially divided into eighteen regions gobollada , singular gobol ,  which in turn are subdivided into districts.
The regions are:. Northern Somalia is now de facto divided up among the autonomous regions of Puntland which considers itself an autonomous state and Somaliland a self-declared but unrecognized sovereign state.
In central Somalia, Galmudug is another regional entity that emerged just south of Puntland. Jubaland in the far south is a fourth autonomous region within the federation.
The Federal Parliament is tasked with selecting the ultimate number and boundaries of the autonomous regional states officially Federal Member States within the Federal Republic of Somalia.
Somalia is bordered by Kenya to the southwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Guardafui Channel and Indian Ocean to the east, and Ethiopia to the west.
The country claims a border with Djibouti through the disputed territory of Somaliland to the northwest. Strategically located at the mouth of the Bab el Mandeb gateway to the Red Sea and the Suez Canal , the country occupies the tip of a region that, due to its resemblance on the map to a rhinoceros ' horn, is commonly referred to as the Horn of Africa.
Its terrain consists mainly of plateaus , plains and highlands. Somalia has several islands and archipelagos on its coast, including the Bajuni Islands and the Saad ad-Din Archipelago : see islands of Somalia.
Somalia contains seven terrestrial ecoregions: Ethiopian montane forests , Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic , Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets , Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands , Hobyo grasslands and shrublands , Somali montane xeric woodlands , and East African mangroves.
In the north, a scrub-covered, semi-desert plain referred as the Guban lies parallel to the Gulf of Aden littoral. With a width of twelve kilometres in the west to as little as two kilometres in the east, the plain is bisected by watercourses that are essentially beds of dry sand except during the rainy seasons.
When the rains arrive, the Guban's low bushes and grass clumps transform into lush vegetation. Cal Madow is a mountain range in the northeastern part of the country.
The Ogo's western plateau, in turn, gradually merges into the Haud , an important grazing area for livestock. Somalia has only two permanent rivers, the Jubba and Shabele , both of which begin in the Ethiopian Highlands.
These rivers mainly flow southwards, with the Jubba River entering the Indian Ocean at Kismayo.
The Shabele River at one time apparently used to enter the sea near Merca , but now reaches a point just southwest of Mogadishu.
After that, it consists of swamps and dry reaches before finally disappearing in the desert terrain east of Jilib , near the Jubba River. Somalia is a semi-arid country with about 1.
From onward, a massive tree-planting campaign on a nationwide scale was introduced by the Siad Barre government to halt the advance of thousands of acres of wind-driven sand dunes that threatened to engulf towns, roads and farm land.
This educational effort led in to the so-called "Somalia proposal" and a decision by the Somali government to adhere to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora CITES , which established for the first time a worldwide ban on the trade of elephant ivory.
Later, Fatima Jibrell , a prominent Somali environmental activist, mounted a successful campaign to salvage old-growth forests of acacia trees in the northeastern part of Somalia.
In , Horn Relief coordinated a peace march in the northeastern Puntland region of Somalia to put an end to the so-called "charcoal wars".
As a result of Jibrell's lobbying and education efforts, the Puntland government in prohibited the exportation of charcoal.
Following the massive tsunami of December , there have also emerged allegations that after the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in the late s, Somalia's long, remote shoreline was used as a dump site for the disposal of toxic waste.
The huge waves that battered northern Somalia after the tsunami are believed to have stirred up tons of nuclear and toxic waste that might have been dumped illegally in the country by foreign firms.
According to reports by the United Nations Environment Programme UNEP , the waste has resulted in far higher than normal cases of respiratory infections, mouth ulcers and bleeding, abdominal haemorrhages and unusual skin infections among many inhabitants of the areas around the northeastern towns of Hobyo and Benadir on the Indian Ocean coast — diseases consistent with radiation sickness.
UNEP adds that the situation along the Somali coastline poses a very serious environmental hazard not only in Somalia, but also in the eastern Africa sub-region.
Due to Somalia's proximity to the equator , there is not much seasonal variation in its climate. Hot conditions prevail year-round along with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall.
Although the coastal regions are hot and humid throughout the year, the hinterland is typically dry and hot.
There are four main seasons around which pastoral and agricultural life revolve, and these are dictated by shifts in the wind patterns.
From December to March is the Jilal , the harshest dry season of the year. The main rainy season, referred to as the Gu , lasts from April to June.
This period is characterized by the southwest monsoons, which rejuvenate the pasture land, especially the central plateau, and briefly transform the desert into lush vegetation.
From July to September is the second dry season, the Xagaa pronounced "Hagaa". The Dayr , which is the shortest rainy season, lasts from October to December.
Somalia contains a variety of mammals due to its geographical and climatic diversity. It also has a large population of the dromedary camel.
Somalia is home to around species of birds. Of these, eight are endemic, one has been introduced by humans, and one is rare or accidental. Fourteen species are globally threatened.
Birds species found exclusively in the country include the Somali Pigeon , Alaemon hamertoni Alaudidae , Lesser Hoopoe-Lark, Heteromirafra archeri Alaudidae , Archer's Lark, Mirafra ashi , Ash's Bushlark, Mirafra somalica Alaudidae , Somali Bushlark, Spizocorys obbiensis Alaudidae , Obbia Lark, Carduelis johannis Fringillidae , and Warsangli Linnet.
Somalia's territorial waters are prime fishing grounds for highly migratory marine species, such as tuna.
A narrow but productive continental shelf contains several demersal fish and crustacean species. There are roughly species of reptiles.
Of these, almost half live in the northern areas. Reptiles endemic to Somalia include the Hughes' saw-scaled viper , the Southern Somali garter snake, a racer Platyceps messanai , a diadem snake Spalerosophis josephscorteccii , the Somali sand boa , the angled worm lizard , a spiny-tailed lizard Uromastyx macfadyeni , Lanza's agama, a gecko Hemidactylus granchii , the Somali semaphore gecko , and a sand lizard Mesalina or Eremias.
A colubrid snake Aprosdoketophis andreonei and Haacke-Greer's skink Haackgreerius miopus are endemic species. Somalia is a parliamentary representative democratic republic.
The President of Somalia is the head of state and commander-in-chief of the Somali Armed Forces and selects a Prime Minister to act as head of government.
The Federal Parliament of Somalia is the national parliament of Somalia. The bicameral National Legislature consists of the House of the People lower house and the Senate upper house , whose members are elected to serve four-year terms.
The parliament elects the President, Speaker of Parliament and Deputy Speakers. It also has the authority to pass and veto laws. On 10 September , parliament elected Hassan Sheikh Mohamud as the new President of Somalia.
The Judiciary of Somalia is defined by the Provisional Constitution of the Federal Republic of Somalia. Adopted on 1 August by a National Constitutional Assembly in Mogadishu,   the document was formulated by a committee of specialists chaired by attorney and incumbent Speaker of the Federal Parliament, Mohamed Osman Jawari.
The national court structure is organized into three tiers: the Constitutional Court, Federal Government level courts and State level courts.
A nine-member Judicial Service Commission appoints any Federal tier member of the judiciary. It also selects and presents potential Constitutional Court judges to the House of the People of the Federal Parliament for approval.
If endorsed, the President appoints the candidate as a judge of the Constitutional Court. The five-member Constitutional Court adjudicates issues pertaining to the constitution, in addition to various Federal and sub-national matters.
Somali law draws from a mixture of three different systems: civil law , Islamic law and customary law. Somalia's foreign relations are handled by the President as the head of state, the Prime Minister as the head of government, and the federal Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
According to Article 54 of the national constitution, the allocation of powers and resources between the Federal Government and the Federal Republic of Somalia's constituent Federal Member States shall be negotiated and agreed upon by the Federal Government and the Federal Member States, except in matters pertaining to foreign affairs, national defence, citizenship and immigration, and monetary policy.
Article 53 also stipulates that the Federal Government shall consult the Federal Member States on major issues related to international agreements, including negotiations vis-a-vis foreign trade, finance and treaties.
Among these are Djibouti , Ethiopia , Egypt , the United Arab Emirates , Yemen , Turkey , Italy , the United Kingdom , Denmark , France , the United States , the People's Republic of China , Japan , Russian Federation and South Korea.
Additionally, Somalia has several diplomatic missions abroad. There are likewise various foreign embassies and consulates based in the capital Mogadishu and elsewhere in the country.
Somalia is also a member of many international organizations, such as the United Nations , African Union and Arab League. It was a founding member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation in The Somali Armed Forces SAF are the military forces of the Federal Republic of Somalia.
The SAF was initially made up of the Army , Navy , Air Force , Police Force and the National Security Service. In , the gradual process of reconstituting the military was put in motion with the establishment of the Transitional Federal Government TFG.
The Somali Armed Forces are now overseen by the Ministry of Defence of the Federal Government of Somalia, formed in mid In January , the Somali federal government also re-opened the national intelligence service in Mogadishu, renaming the agency the National Intelligence and Security Agency NISA.
Both male and female same-sex sexual activity is illegal and could be punished by up to death. Unlike the pre-civil war period when most services and the industrial sector were government-run , there has been substantial, albeit unmeasured, private investment in commercial activities; this has been largely financed by the Somali diaspora , and includes trade and marketing, money transfer services, transportation, communications, fishery equipment, airlines, telecommunications, education, health, construction and hotels.
Somalia's economy consists of both traditional and modern production, with a gradual shift toward modern industrial techniques.
Somalia has the largest population of camels in the world. The nomads also gather resins and gums to supplement their income. Agriculture is the most important economic sector of Somalia.
With the advantage of being located near the Arabian Peninsula, Somali traders have increasingly begun to challenge Australia 's traditional dominance over the Gulf Arab livestock and meat market, offering quality animals at very low prices.
In response, Gulf Arab states have started to make strategic investments in the country, with Saudi Arabia building livestock export infrastructure and the United Arab Emirates purchasing large farmlands.
Prior to the outbreak of the civil war in , the roughly 53 state-owned small, medium and large manufacturing firms were foundering, with the ensuing conflict destroying many of the remaining industries.
However, primarily as a result of substantial local investment by the Somali diaspora, many of these small-scale plants have re-opened and newer ones have been created.
The latter include fish-canning and meat-processing plants in the northern regions, as well as about 25 factories in the Mogadishu area, which manufacture pasta , mineral water , confections , plastic bags , fabric , hides and skins, detergent and soap , aluminium , foam mattresses and pillows , fishing boats , carry out packaging, and stone processing.
The Central Bank of Somalia is the official monetary authority of Somalia. Owing to a lack of confidence in the local currency, the US dollar is widely accepted as a medium of exchange alongside the Somali shilling.
Dollarization notwithstanding, the large issuance of the Somali shilling has increasingly fuelled price hikes, especially for low value transactions.
According to the Central Bank, this inflationary environment is expected to come to an end as soon as the bank assumes full control of monetary policy and replaces the presently circulating currency introduced by the private sector.
Although Somalia has had no central monetary authority for more than 15 years between the outbreak of the civil war in and the subsequent re-establishment of the Central Bank of Somalia in , the nation's payment system is fairly advanced primarily due to the widespread existence of private money transfer operators MTO that have acted as informal banking networks.
As the reconstituted Central Bank of Somalia fully assumes its monetary policy responsibilities, some of the existing money transfer companies are expected in the near future to seek licenses so as to develop into full-fledged commercial banks.
This will serve to expand the national payments system to include formal cheques, which in turn is expected to reinforce the efficacy of the use of monetary policy in domestic macroeconomic management.
With a significant improvement in local security, Somali expatriates began returning to the country for investment opportunities.
Coupled with modest foreign investment, the inflow of funds have helped the Somali shilling increase considerably in value. The Somali shilling was the strongest among the global currencies traded by Bloomberg , rising close to 50 percentage points higher than the next most robust global currency over the same period.
The Somalia Stock Exchange SSE is the national bourse of Somalia. It was founded in by the Somali diplomat Idd Mohamed , Ambassador extraordinary and deputy permanent representative to the United Nations.
The SSE was established to attract investment from both Somali-owned firms and global companies in order to accelerate the ongoing post-conflict reconstruction process in Somalia.
The World Bank reports that electricity is now in large part supplied by local businesses. Der Unterschied zwischen urbanen und ländlichen Gebieten sowie zwischen arm und reich hat in Somalia so gut wie keine Auswirkungen auf die Verbreitungssrate.
FGM markiert in Somalia den Übergang von der Kindheit zum Frausein und wird in der Regel von traditionellen Beschneiderinnen bzw.
Guddaays ausgeführt. Seit der Unabhängigkeit Somalias wird weibliche Genitalverstümmelung zunehmend medikalisiert und entsprechend häufiger von medizinischem Personal ausgeführt.
Eins der populärsten Argumente für FGM ist religiös begründet. Trotz wiederholter Erklärungen der religiösen Führer des Landes, dass der Islam seine Töchter keineswegs zu FGM verpflichte — vielmehr stehe die weibliche Genitalverstümmelung sogar im Widerspruch zum Islam — setzen die Menschen die Praktik FGM im Namen des Islams fort.
Auch Angehörige anderer Glaubensrichtungen sehen in den jeweiligen Religionen die Verpflichtung zur weiblichen Genitalverstümmelung.
Frauen, die nicht beschnitten wurden, sind in der somalischen Gesellschaft schwerwiegenden Stigmatisierungen, wie geringeren Heiratschancen ausgesetzt.
The capital, Mogadishu , is located just north of the Equator on the Indian Ocean. Somalia is a country of geographic extremes.
The climate is mainly dry and hot, with landscapes of thornbush savanna and semidesert, and the inhabitants of Somalia have developed equally demanding economic survival strategies.
Apart from a mountainous coastal zone in the north and several pronounced river valleys, most of the country is extremely flat, with few natural barriers to restrict the mobility of the nomads and their livestock.
The Somali people are clan-based Muslims, and about three-fifths follow a mobile way of life, pursuing nomadic pastoralism or agropastoralism.
The Republic of Somalia was formed in by the federation of a former Italian colony and a British protectorate. Mohamed Siad Barre Maxamed Siyaad Barre held dictatorial rule over the country from October until January , when he was overthrown in a bloody civil war waged by clan-based guerrillas.
Moreover, a de facto government declared the formation of an independent Republic of Somaliland in the north in Similarly, in the autonomous region of Puntland the Puntland State of Somalia was self-proclaimed in the northeast.
There was, however, hope that the new government would usher in a new era, one in which peace would be achieved and Somalis could focus on rebuilding their country.
Somalia is bounded by the Gulf of Aden to the north, by the Indian Ocean to the east, by Kenya and Ethiopia to the west, and by Djibouti to the northwest.
As a result, Somali communities are also found in Djibouti, Ethiopia, and Kenya, and the border remains a source of dispute. The Somali peninsula consists mainly of a tableland of young limestone and sandstone formations.
In the extreme north, along the Gulf of Aden, is a narrow coastal plain called the Guban , which broadens northward toward the port of Berbera.
This gives way inland to a maritime mountain range with a steep north-facing scarp. Near Ceerigaabo Erigavo a mountain called Surud Cad reaches the highest elevation in the country, about 7, feet 2, metres.
To the south are the broad plateaus of the Galgodon or Ogo Highlands and the Sool and Hawd regions, which drop gradually southward toward the Indian Ocean.